About Beth Walter Honadle
In our conversation about equity, we need to discuss solutions to exporting pollution to other countries in the name of going green. The most disadvantaged groups are paying the price of other groups having a cleaner environment.
Votre attention est correctement sur l'engagement de citoyen. Dans cet âge de migration massive avec le nombre record de réfugiés, comment incluons-nous des voix noncitzen? Comme des noncitoyens ils n'ont pas de droits de vote, par exemple. Il y a des institutions multinationales et des groupes de pression cet avocat pour le compte des noncitoyens. Je pense qu'il serait utile de faire entendre des voix de migrants directement. Les politiciens caractérisent des motivations de migrants et le caractère pour faire appel leurs partisans. Je crois que c'est une question pour beaucoup de pays.
I suggest that we include a discussion of women's wealth. This post makes the case for addressing the gulf between women's wealth and men's wealth. This is a topic that unites us because increasing women's wealth and ensuring parity with men will not only empower women, but it will decrease their dependence and help them weather financially employment breaks such as for childbirth and care for dependents. There has been relatively more attention to barriers to employment, pay equity, and other issues affecting women's income. Even with the notable attention on specific instruments such as micro loans, the issue of women's lack of wealth is appropriate for this year's forum.
In their forthcoming book, Money Talk: A Financial Guide for Women (Plant and Life Sciences Publishing, Ithaca, NY, April 2018), Patricia Q. Brennan and Barbara M. O'Neill preface their publication by saying that women have a unique set of financial needs: By and and large, they live longer; earn less; have gaps in employment that affect their retirements; frequently rely on a spouse for income; and lack financial experience.
Research has shown that women's wealth (assets minus debt) are only about a third (36%) of men, even as earnings or pay has risen to 78% of men's. The reasons for this phenomenon are socially structured, including the differential rewards for part-time work, how parental leave is or is not compensated, and family leave policies. (Mariko Chang, Shortchanged: Why Women Have Less Wealth and What Can Be Done About It. Oxford University Press, 2011)
In developing countries, in particular, laws governing inheritance and ownership put women at more of a disadvantage. In general, the lack of economic resources constrains women's choices compared to men's. (Anne Mikkola, Role of Gender Equality in Development -- A Literature Review. Discussion paper No. 84, Nov. 2005)
Minority women are extremely disadvantaged wealth-wise. According to Connie E. Evans ("The Intersection of Gender, Race, and Culture as Influencers on African American Women's Financial Stress, Asset Accumulation, and Wealth Attainment", Monograph, University of Michigan, Center for the Education of Women, 2006), there are "government opportunities" (i.e., policies) that can improve this dire situation. These include revamping employer retirement savings plans, providing for more favorable (or "fairer") tax treatment for documented financial support of extended family members, and requiring elementary and secondary consumer education for schools receiving public funds.
Wealth has been called "one of the most central indicators of financial well-being and security", but the disparities are extreme. (Lisa A. Keister and Stephanie Moller, "Wealth Inequality in the United States," Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 26 (2000), p. 76)
Wealth and empowerment, while not interchangeable, are inextricably intertwined. Esther Duflo found a weak relationship between women's empowerment and economic development and concluded that "continuous policy commitments to equality for its own sake may be needed to bring about equality between men and women. ("Women Empowerment and Economic Development", Journal of Economic Literature, 2012, 50 (4), 1051-1079) In other words, even if one cannot demonstrate societal development benefits to narrowing the wealth gap between women and men, it is the right thing to do nonetheless for its own sake.
With regard to the very wording of "What Unites Us", I believe there must be some better ways to express the very idea------because a singular form is used here instead of a plural one. I believe the significance is not only limited to the linguistic expression. I have the following three reasons.
First, the influence of OECD is widely spread, not just confined to its member countries. English is not my mother tongue, and not the official language for some OECD member countries as well. The very wording gives the impression that only one dominant force is out there dominating the landscape and dictating the course of direction and it is supposed to be our job now to figure out the ONE, describe the ONE and eventually get together around the ONE. (To this part, the credit should go to late Professor Edward W. Said, his sense of "Us" versus "the Other", inclusive versus exclusive.)
Second, the notion of diversity is important and can never be overemphasized. Even though structurally the U.S. is seating on the very top of the pyramid economically, financially, militarily, and so on, yet its promulgated policies are the outcome of a balanced approach presumably having brought under consideration all the relevant factors and elements (under the catch-all term of diversity), such as the rivaling EU, rising China and confronting Russia. After all, In Varietate Concordia. So, diversity matters.
Third, it should be the natural continuation of last year's theme, Bridging Divides. Since there are many forces that divided us, as in 2017, there must be more than one force to unite us in 2018, a sort of synergy of a united front. A wall is made up with bricks, and in order to tear down the wall, we need do it brick by brick, eventually all the bricks, with collective efforts against an accumulation of stuffs------a game of to do and undo. I believe that is the reason why we are here to discuss the process and figure out how.
I agree. I felt like the title was confining and you hit the nail on the head.